Cavities and tooth decay (filling/inlay)

Cavities, also called caries or tooth decay, develop when plaque damages the enamel that protects the outer surface of the teeth.

If you have cavities, it is important to have them treated by a dentist as soon as possible. Without prompt treatment, cavities can eventually progress and affect the delicate tissue and nerves deep within your teeth. When cavities are treated early, serious complications, such as nerve damage and tooth loss can be prevented.

If your dental hygienist or dentist finds a cavity, your dentist can treat the cavity by removing the decayed tissue and placing a dental filling, special material put in the tooth to protect it from further damage and decay.

Before removing your cavity, your dentist will apply a local anesthetic to numb the surrounding tissue. A dental drill will then be used to remove the decayed portion of your tooth and prepare it for a filling. Materials used in fillings are safe.

In some cases, your dentist may need to make your filling in a laboratory from a special mold of your tooth. This type of filling includes a custom-made inlay that fills the removed portion of your tooth, along with a crown that covers the top and sides of your tooth. It takes two or more visits to place a custom-made restoration..

If the tooth decay is extensive and there is limited tooth structure remaining, crowns (see details below) will be used. If a crown is needed, the decayed or weakened area of the tooth is removed and repaired and a crown is fitted over the remainder of the tooth.

If the decay causes the nerve or pulp of the tooth to die, a root canal (see details below) will be performed. During a root canal, the center of the tooth (including the nerve, blood vessels, and tissue) is removed along with the decayed portions of the tooth. The roots are then filled with a sealing material. If necessary, a crown can be placed over the filled tooth.

Information on Conservative Dental Intervention

 Preparing Filling, Inlay


Filling: in case of smaller decays


  1. in case of bigger decayed area or cavities affecting more surfaces,
  2. in case of replacing bigger filling,
  3. in case of rebuilding rootcanal-treated tooth,
  4. in case of restoring occlusion height,
  5. in case of solving shape and aesthetic irregularity of tooth,
  6. when replacing lost tooth around gap are built inlay and they hold the replaced tooth,

Filling: preparing cavity is performed by a high speed micro motor, while the removing of decayed area is carried out by low speed micro motor. Subsequently, the anatomic shape of tooth is restored tooth-coloured and aesthetic filling material. The intervention is implemented with using a so-called rubber dam isolating set, which consists of rubber sheet and fixing clamps that is a useful and inevitable condition for the successful filling as it provides maximal overview and security and adequate sterile conditions for the intervention. Teeth are seized through holes on rubber sheet. Sheet is fixed on the tooth neck by clamp and remains outside of mouth with utilising a frame. Treatment requires the simultaneous isolation of numerous teeth. Height is checked upon performing filling, and filling is to be polished by rubber polish and polish paste.

Inlay and onlay: Subsequent to removal of old filling and cleaning of decayed area, special cavity preparation is performed. In various cases, the cusp needs to be removed as it is a part lacking supporter and might brake off due to occlusal force (in case of root-treated tooth, teeth are covered with onlay including cusps). The so-called undermined walls of cavity shall be filled with composite or glass ionomer material and then an impression of tooth is maken. Impression-making is performed with silicon based impression material: impression tray is filled and then placed to dental arch with pressing. The antagonist impression-making, namely the impression of the opposite arch of the treated arch is required for dental technician work. In such case, alginate impression material is used most commonly.

Material used:

Filling material: compound filling material

Inlay material:

Composite (strengthened by glass particles): Gradia, Belle Glass

Composite ceramic

Pressed ceramic: Empress

Temporary Treatment

Inlay: A temporary inlay is placed in prepared cavity that provides aesthetic solution and chewing function until finishing dental technician work. A more simple solution is the utilisation of the so-called temporary filling that hardens with light.

Handing over:

Inlays: inlays are fixed in teeth over a week. Prior to attaching inlay, cavity shall be disinfected by ozone therapy as it provides germ-free cavity. Attaching is carried out under local anaesthesia in so- called rubber dam isolation (a rubber sheet is fixed on treated tooth by using a clamp to keep away saliva and blood). The possible height correction is carried out after attaching.

Why you should prevent tooth decay

  1. Did you know that orthodontics is important not only for aesthetic reasons but also contributes to healthy not decaying teeth plus makes your speech clearer and makes it easier to eat.
  2. Did you know that even invisible tooth decay has symptoms like soreness, pain and bad breath. If these symptoms appear seek medical help so that these problems can be treated in time.
  3. Did you know that the dental filling will prevent further deterioration of the teeth and will not let decay spread to the adjacent teeth.
  4. Did you know that it is not uncommon that there is a little hole visible on the surface of the tooth, but in fact there has been an extensive destruction inside the tooth.
  5. Did you know that poor diet is responsible for your decaying teeth as well? Consumption of white bakery products specifically destroys the teeth, while the right amount of protein intake strengthens the teeth.
  6. Did you know that proper intake of vitamins and minerals strengthens teeth: the most important materials are calcium and phosphorus.
  7. id you know that tooth decay can be prevented, but if it has already evolved it must be treated by filling cavities.
  8. Did you know that because of physical damage dental filling may be necessary. Worn and chipped teeth are also treated the same way.
  9. Did you know that when a tooth is filled without drilling the surface of the tooth is cleaned with tiny metal particles and prepared for treatment.

Facts about a filling (inlay/onlay) that is prepared by a dental technician

  1. Did you know that inlay and onlay is a type of dental filling, however it is stronger and more aesthetic than “average” fillings, as it fits the edges of the tooth and anatomically perfectly fits in both healthy and damaged teeth.
  2. Did you know that inlays and onlays are prepared by dental technicians based on the impression, once completed the dentist cements it to the tooth.
  3. Did you know that inlays and onlays are used most often when your amalgam fillings are replaced and it is the most effective treatment to fill root canal treated teeth.
  4. Did you know that in case of bad bite it is also recommended to use inlays, as the bite height can be easily adjusted by using inlays.
  5. Did you know that healthy teeth need the following vitamins: D, A, C and B vitamins.
  6. Did you know that healthy teeth need the following minerals: Ca, P, F, Mg, Mo.
  7. Did you know that an oxidation treatment with ozone is so effective that bacterias and micro-organisms are not able to develop immunity.
  8. Did you know that devices used in ozone dentistry are designed to 100% cover the treated area, so ozone does not get into the lung.
  9. Did you know that, if there is decay and you need fillings, ozone treatment during drilling will reduce the area of drilling.
  10. Did you know that, thanks to the CAD / CAM technology thousandth of a millimeter precise prosthesis (inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges) can be made? So that they look exactly like the original teeth.
  11. Did you know that in case of prosthetic treatment you do not have to spend any day without tooth? After treatment a temporary crown or bridge is prepared, which makes it invisible your temporary tooth shortage.